son preference in pakistan

CONTEXT: Son preference exerts a strong influence over contraceptive and fertility decisions in many South Asian countries. Son preference is a form of gender based discrimination which is a well-recognized fact that has existed in all parts of the globe. This research has found that son preference has increased in Pakistan during 1990 to 2007. Our replication exercise strongly supports their theory: mothers breastfeed daughters significantly less (especially if there are no elder sons) to increase the chances of becoming pregnant again with the hope to conceive a son. The principal finding is the presence of a strong son preference both for the husband and for the wife. At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general.  |  COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. As a part of the Pakistani society, ... how others’ wants were morphed into my preference for a son is a process not unfamiliar to most of the Pakistani population. Son preference leads to discrimination against girls, which impact on different domains of their life. Year of publication: Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior. Son preference in Pakistan: An analysis of intentions versus behaviour (Rand paper series) [De Tray, Dennis N] on Amazon.com. Son Preference and Gender-Biased Breastfeeding in Pakistan. Gender preference and birth spacing in Matlab, Bangladesh. Atif K (1), Ullah MZ (2), Afsheen A (3), Naqvi SA (4), Raja ZA (5), Niazi SA (6). Preference for a first-born boy in Western societies. Author D De Tray. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Son Preference in Pakistan:A Myth or Reality Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Naima Hafeez & Climent Quintana-Domeque, 2018. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. This report is part of the RAND Corporation paper series. Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance. Evidence of Son Preference and Resulting Demographic and Health Outcomes in Pakistan ... Like much of South Asia, Pakistan has a highly patriarchal society. In 1990-1991 son preference ratio was 38.3% and increased in 2006-2007 to 47.5%. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review. The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Downloadable! Son preference is common in many Asian countries. Naima Hafeez and Climent Quintana-Domeque () . J Family Reprod Health. A skewed sex ratio and shortage of girls is detrimental to the health and welfare of women, as well as to the human development of India. Son preference in Pakistan : an analysis of intentions versus behavior . One implication of this finding is that techniques for influencing the sex of future births can be expected to have little effect on population growth rates. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2018, vol. Another explanation is that although parents indicate that they want more boys than girls, their actions do not reflect this preference because of the dominating influence of overall desires for numbers of children regardless of the sex of those children. Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. According to Mahmood and Mahmood (1995), the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) of 1990-1991 shows that one-third of women with no children have a desire to have a son, whereas the preference for a daughter is negligible. Pakistani women also seem to have exceptionally poor mental health. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan / R. Hussain, F. F. Fikree and H. W. Berendes This explanation is consistent with theoretical findings. De Tray D. Research in Population Economics, 01 Jan 1984, 5: 185-200 PMID: 12266412 . The results suggest that with regard to actual behavior, Pakistani preferences for having children may dominate preferences for children of a certain type. A literature review. Son preference and reproductive behaviour in rural Punjab. It is found that son preference is also a major factor in determining use of permanent contraceptive methods in every country apart from Afghanistan. Tray, Dennis de. Socioeconomic Correlates of Contraceptive Use among the Ethnic Tribal Women of Bangladesh: Does Sex Preference Matter? The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. This paper explores the extent to which couples' actual behavior is consistent with this expressed preference, and reviews a number of analytical methods for estimating the effect of sex of children on fertility behavior. In other words, couples may prefer boy to girl children, but they would still rather have many girl children than few or no children at all. No abstract provided. ... Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the . According to Dictionary Online: 'Gender Discrimination is a situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex, usually when a woman is treated less well than a man. This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. Behavior Res Popul Econ. The association of son preference with parity progression and modern contraceptive use has become stronger in Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990±91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15±49 years. A recently published study found that Pakistani couples express an approximately three-to-one preference for sons over daughters. Do family planning programs affect fertility preferences? We test the validity of their theory in Pakistan, where parents’ stated preference for sons is twice as large as in India. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1980. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6504.html. PMID: 12266412 Abstract PIP: The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. The probit maximum likelihood estimation procedure is utilized, and the analysis is based on cross-sectional data on 2,910 currently married women obtained from a national survey conducted in Pakistan in 1968-1969. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher ; Ph.D, India Pakistan. Subscribe to the public interest is part of the globe from birth 15! Sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South in! 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